The most famous sources for sapphire are Sri Lanka (ceylon), Kashmir and Burma, (now known as Myanmar). Kashmir sapphire, which was discovered in 1881 when a landslide in the Himalayas uncovered beautiful blue pebbles, has a rich velvety color prized by connoisseurs. Burma sapphires, from the same region that produces fabulous rubies, are also very fine. However, today, these two sources account for a very small quantity of the sapphire on the market.
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Ruby is an aluminum oxide, a variety of corundum; it occurs in medium to dark tones of red and violet-red to brownish-red. Ruby is the most popular and highest priced colored stone of all time and its being used in King's crowns through out the history.